Dear Dr. Warford: My dog HATES Fireworks and Thunderstorms: What Should I do? 4th of July and Summer Thunderstorm Safety Tips

1 Jul

It happens every year. You know it’s coming. If summer thunderstorms and 4th of July fireworks are stressful for your pet, you probably don’t look forward to the following unavoidable events:

  • Random, unpredictable, intermittent, unapproved fireworks by your wonderful neighbors starting the week before
  • Large sustained pre-planned firework events in nearly every neighborhood in America
  • Loud and crowded cookouts with kids and greasy foods and alcohol and no one really supervising any of it
  • Sporadic, unpredictable thunderstorms

While 4th of July celebrations may be much-anticipated events for us (generally because we aren’t at work), it’s not necessarily a day of fun for our pets, especially without the right precautions. With just a bit of pre-planning, you can make this holiday a little less stressful and much more safe for your pet.

First (and foremost): If you take nothing else from this post, please read and absorb this as it is THE most important point:

  • Don’t take your pet to fireworks displays or events.
  • Though you may think your dog will enjoy the festivities, many dogs are frightened by the crowds and the noise.
  • Some will even panic, try to escape, and can injure themselves.
  • Add in the likely sweltering heat and unattended food items that often accompany these festivities, and the potential dangers far outweigh the potential fun.
  • Leave your pets at home where they are safe and comfortable.
  • Make sure your pet is wearing identification tags, and preferably, in addition, have your pet microchipped.

Also keep in mind:

  • Use caution when having parties or cookouts when you have pets.
  • Many human foods (such as onions, garlic, macadamia nuts, grapes, and raisins) are toxic to animals.
  • In addition, most pets who are used to a consistent diet can have extreme, potentially life-threatening, gastrointestinal upset when given scraps and grill droppings, esp with high fatty/greasy foods. This can result in days, if not weeks, of vomiting and diarrhea, which could result in the need for hospitalization and aggressive IV fluid treatment to resolve.
  • Alcoholic drinks can also be a major threat as many may taste sweet but ingestion can result in difficulty breathing, coma, and even death. Mix that in with trash items that can cause more vomiting and diarrhea, and obstructions, and you have some pretty serious potential problems.
  • Insect repellents, citronella candles, sunscreen, glow jewelry, and lighter fluid: We use them all the time but we don’t generally think of eating them. Our pets might. These are toxic to pets and may result in neurological problems, seizures, breathing problems, pneumonia, as well as severe gastrointestinal upset, and obstruction, requiring hospitalization and even surgery to correct.
  • Make sure your pet is confined or being monitored during these events.  When large numbers of children, people, alcohol and outdoor food mix, there is generally always an opportunity for your dog to find things lying around that are tasty and NOT good for them. And you may never notice until the symptoms occur much later in the day or week.

What to do if you have a nervous noise-phobic dog, or you aren’t sure, and the 4th of July is approaching?

  • Don’t take your pet out to a celebration
  • Don’t leave your pet unattended in a nonsecure area of the house or outside
  • If your pet is crate-trained, prepare the crate for your pet to retreat into if she wants.  Covering it with a large blanket may create an even safer feeling environment for your dog. If your dog is not acclimated to crates or does not like being in crates, it is obviously not a good option to consider forced crating in this situation, as that will only worsen her anxiety and chance for injury if she panics and tries to escape. In these cases, it’s best to help your pet find a quiet, dark, enclosed area (under blankets, in a closet or corner) in which to retreat.
  • Be aware of the signs of noise phobia: pacing, panting, drooling, vocalizing, trembling, hiding (esp cats), seeking out excessive owner contact, dilated pupils, panic or destructive escape behaviors.  These behaviors will often worsen with repeated exposure if not addressed. 
  • This is a typical expression you may see in a fearful, noise-phobic dog during an event.

If you notice any of these behaviors, don’t reinforce it accidentally.

  • This is one of the most common mistakes we make when addressing these problems in our pets.
  • You want to stay calm and comforting for your dog, but giving her excessive attention (petting, repeatedly saying “it’s OK”) while your dog is displaying these phobic behaviors will likely serve to reinforce the anxiety in your pet.
  • Provide safe, quiet areas for your pet to retreat to but try not to reinforce the fear response with too much attention. Instead, try to allow your pet to find a safe area to settle into on her own. Most dogs will prefer quiet, enclosed, familiar, dark spaces.
  • Calm, soothing, quiet music may be helpful for both you and your pet during these episodes and may help cover up the offending noises outside.
  • Some dogs prefer to hide under blankets or may benefit from the anxiety body wraps that are marketed for these types of situations. One such brand is the Thundershirt and I have heard great reviews about it from my clients.
  • Consider herbal calming remedies such as Rescue Remedy, but make sure they are labeled for the specific type of pet you have in mind and follow the label’s dosing instructions.
  • A few drops of lavender oil on a collar or bandana may also be soothing.
  • There are also massage techniques, TTouch in particular, that can be helpful.
  • Pheromones called D.A.P, for dogs, or Feliway, for cats, which come as sprays and collars, are also good natural calming agent adjuncts. These can be found at most major pet stores or on-line.
  • Also, check with your vet that none of these items would be contraindicated for your pet’s health or react with any current medications your pet may be receiving prior to administering them.
  • Additionally, if you know an event is coming (like a thunderstorm or fireworks display), make sure your dog gets her regular dose of exercise and if possible, a bit more, prior to the event, as this will help tire her out both mentally and physically. This can be of benefit in two ways: it can results in her not being as responsive to the event due to being tired.  Also, exercise increases her natural serotonin levels which can help with relaxation.

What are the long-term solutions?

  • Behavior modification, under the supervision of a trainer or veterinary behaviorist, is something you can discuss. This is a slow process with many different approaches.  Each case is individual, so it must be addressed one on one and is too complicated and personalized to properly address in this post. It can be very rewarding, with dedication, patience, and time, but it is not something you can consider when your pet is in the middle of an anxiety causing event. There is no guarantee a phobic dog can be “cured”, but generally with time and understanding, it can become manageable with the right awareness and tools, which involves a lengthy personalized training process as well as possibly medications that can hopefully be tapered over time as the retraining occurs.  This is something to consider moving forward to hopefully make future events less stressful for everyone.
  • Medication is often used both on a long-term daily basis and an as needed basis for dogs with anxiety. You should discuss with your veterinarian whether they think an anti-anxiety medication may be helpful for your pet. Many pet owners find having short-term anti-anxiety medications on hand for their pets, for use around the fourth of July and during storms, is extremely helpful. Your vet will have to perform and an exam and discuss all options with you prior to prescribing these for your pet.  If you are wondering if it could be a good option for your pet, call and discuss it with your vet NOW, before you or your pet are in an urgent situation, most likely when your vet will be closed. You also want to give your vet time to review your pet’s case and prescribe the proper medication. Calling them an hour before they close on July 3rd, when they will likely be closed on the 4th, is not a very pro-active option, or at least not likely to ensure you will receive a response in time.
  • When using any anti-anxiety remedies, they must be given prior to the stressful event in order to take full effect. If they are not given until the pet is already fully stressed out, the body’s hormones will override the benefits of the medications.  As a result, they will not have nearly the effect of relieving the anxiety episodes as they would if first given when the pet is still calm. If you know fireworks are scheduled for 7pm, for example, you’ll want to begin preparing an area for your dog and using any calming agents early in the afternoon.

Finally, remember to remain calm yourself. Pets do pick up on our emotions and a stressed owner will not be able to calm a stressed pet. Try to remain as calm, steady, and as in control as possible. Getting upset at your pet for her behavior will only make it worse, but remember, do not inadvertently reward the behavior with excessive coddling either. Try to help your pet find a way to self soothe by finding a safe secure location, and put on quiet music or television as a distraction, and wait it out until the stressful event has passed.

Hopefully these tips can help you and your pet have a safe happy 4th of July and summer thunderstorm season. If you live in DC or the DC Metro area of Maryland, and would like help addressing any of these phobia issues with your pet, check out: Dr. Warford’s behavior page to find out more about a behavior consult.

To find a veterinary behavior specialist in your area, if you live outside the DC Metro area, and would like to find a certified behaviorist or trainer, check out:

Also, here are links for DC, MD, and VA area pre-planned firework events for 2012:

Dear Dr. Warford, So What Exactly *Can* Dogs Hear?

3 Jun

You’ve probably noticed and heard, dogs have a more sensitive sense of hearing than we humans do. But what exactly can they hear? And why?

First, let’s look at the way they are built: we’ll start with the outside of the ears. We’ll cover the inner ear and common problems with it in another post- otherwise you’ll be reading for days!

Dogs begin to hear at about 3 weeks of age. In the list of senses, sound is second in sensitivity- and importance for survival- only to their sense of smell.

They have over 18 muscles controlling the movement of their ears- we humans have 6. This allows them to move in much more complicated, deliberate and focused ways than our human ears can.

They can rotate and tilt their ears, allowing them to get those sound waves more efficiently than we can.  Additionally (and very cool), their ears can move independently of each other, allowing them to locate and focus on sounds in different directions. It also helps that their ears tend to be larger and more erect than ours, again, allowing them to get those sound waves better than we can.

Have you ever seen your dog suddenly turn one ear in a different direction, even while their eyes are focused somewhere else, even when surrounded by other sounds? It is likely your dog has picked up a sound you may not even hear and is attempting to locate where it’s coming from.  It really shows their ability to screen noise, and filter out only what they think is new or important.

Most nerdy and doctor folks agree that dogs with heavy, floppy ears don’t hear as well as dogs with erect, upright ears, but they still have us beat by quite a bit.  A bigger concern with floppy eared dogs (not related necessarily to their hearing) is they are more likely to have ear infections due to the heavy ears hanging so close to their head.  Those big ears don’t allow air to get into the ear, giving gross little organisms a nice, warm place to grow. But again, I digress.

Now that we’ve covered what they are hearing *with*, let’s look at what *exactly* they hear. This might get a bit scientific and nerdy, but bear with me. It’ll be worth it.

First let’s talk about sound. Sound is a series of waves (technically: air disruptions) that reach our ears and are translated by our brains into the sounds we hear.

Sound is measured in different ways: including loudness and pitch. Pitch is measured by the frequency of wavelengths that are transmitted.  It is measured in Hertz (we use the acronym/shortened word: Hz).

One Hz means there’s one cycle/second. The lower the number, the lower the pitch, which will have more of a bass tone: like a fog-horn. The higher the number, the higher the pitch, such as a whistle.

This can get very complicated, but a simple explanation: Humans can generally hear a range of 20-20,000 Hz, and the human voice generally ranges from 1000-4000 Hz. Now get ready to be impressed: dogs can hear a range of 40-45,000 Hz, at least, and… likely more.

Some studies have indicated the high end could be closer to 75,000 for some breeds, especially those with large, erect ears.  But, what does that mean? It means that dogs can hear many sounds we can’t of higher pitch, which is why the dog whistle, which is silent to humans, can be heard by dogs. They can also pick up sounds we can’t in everyday life such as noises on the TV, ambulances from a distance, and even additional sounds from the vacuum cleaner, which might explain why they may react in ways that don’t seem to make sense to us. They may be hearing something we can’t!  To be honest, I think the vacuum cleaner is annoying enough. I can’t imagine hearing even more annoying sounds when it’s on.

Their anatomy and increased sensitivity to those same higher pitches, it is thought that dogs can hear sounds that are about 4 times further away than we can. This is important: go back and read again.  Four times further away!  Again, this is why dogs may react to ambulances before we even hear them and continue barking or howling even after we are no longer able to hear the siren. They are also better able to tell the small differences in sounds that we may not be able to.  But, keep in mind, all of this also means that some noises that are not terribly loud or annoying to us may be very annoying or even painful to our dogs:  a good rule of thumb is if it is a loud and painful noise to us, chances are it is *even more* uncomfortable for your dog.

Why do dogs have such sensitive hearing?

We doctor types seem to guess evolution.

We know that dogs rely (for the most part) on scent/smells and sound to track their food and/or prey.  It makes sense that their hearing would be better at telling the high pitch sounds their prey may send out: even from further away, and from many directions. If a dog had to rely on a human’s ability to hear, it wouldn’t last very long in the wild on a hunt for food.

So, the next time your dog is playing in the yard and suddenly stops and perks up its ears, remember: There’s a whole world out there that we just can’t appreciate.

Dear Dr. Warford, What Can Dogs See, Anyway?

11 May

Dear Dr. Warford:

So what can dogs see, anyway? I’ve heard they are colorblind and only see black and white. Is this true? And why don’t they care about the tv? 

Signed- Just wondering

First let’s talk about what colors dogs can see. You’ve probably heard dogs are color blind. Well, that’s kind of true. Dogs have the same kind of colorblindness as most people who are colorblind. It’s called deuteranopia.  You see, we humans normally have 3 different type of cone cells in our eyes. These cells are responsible for the detection of color. In dogs, and some colorblind people, they only have 2 types of cone cells, yellow and blue.  As a result, they see red as a brownish-gold,  orange as lighter shades of gold-yellow, and green as shades of yellow-grey. They also can’t see violet, which to them appears as shades of blue or grey. This means dogs see the world in shades of brownish/gold, yellow, blue, and grey.  So it’s pretty impressive that they can fetch that red ball on the green grass, but we’ll get into why they are so successful at that a bit later.

Not only do they not have as many types of cones, they also don’t have the same number or concentration of cones as compared to people, so the intensity/brightness of the colors they see is also diminished. It is speculated that all of this happened with evolution. As we primates evolved, it was important that we could distinguish the full range of colors because we needed to be able to see them when foraging for food to distinguish what was safe to eat. In contrast, dogs hunted mainly at night, so the ability to distinguish color wasn’t as important as the ability to see well in low light, which brings us to the other type of cells in our and our canine friends’ eyes: the rod.

Dogs have many more rod cells in their eyes than humans. Rods can only discern black and white, not color, but they make dogs sensitive to many more shades of grey than humans and enable them to have much better vision in the dark. They also allow dogs to detect much tinier movements than we can and from much further away. They also have a reflective surface on the back of their eye called a tapetum lucidum, which reelects light, acting like a mirror allowing more light transmission and better night vision.  So you can see how these traits would be preferable in animals that needed to be able to catch their prey at night.

Dogs’ vision is estimated to be 20/75. This means they are unable to see as clearly as we are at a distance. A dog may clearly see an object only 20 feet away that a human could see clearly from 75 feet away.  But don’t feel too bad for our canine friends, because while we can only see about 180 degrees around us without moving our eyes, dogs can see an average of 240 degrees, more or less around themselves, which means they have a much better sense of what’s nearby.  Add that to their keen ability to detect movement from a distance and see more clearly in the dark thanks to those plentiful rods, and their ridiculously acute sense of smell, and it’s no wonder they are such great hunters.

Which brings us to the biggest question of all: Can my dog see what’s on TV? Well, yes, but is it the same? Until the new fancy high resolution TVs, it was likely that instead of seeing a continuous image, dogs only saw constant flickering, due to our differences in “flicker resolution.” I imagine this was not only not interesting, but pretty annoying for dogs to look at. Now, with the advent of higher resolution screens, dogs are likely able to see a continuous image, and more dogs do seem to “watch” tv, especially animals that are moving. But, keep in mind their limited color vision, decreased ability to discern detail, and the fact that tv has no smell, they often don’t associate the movements seen on tv as anything of interest, or at least not for very long.  So don’t worry, our advanced technology shouldn’t turn Rover into a soap opera addict while you’re away at work.

So next time you and Lola are playing fetch in your back yard with a tennis ball or a bright red/orange toy, be a bit more impressed! She (or he-no judging here) is relying much more on the movement and scent of the ball than the ability to see it.  Plus, you’ve gotten her off the sofa and out from in front of the TV! That deserves a treat!

Coming soon:

What Can Dogs Hear? What Can Dogs Smell? What Can Dogs Taste?

Also: What Can Cats See? What Can Cats Hear? What Can Cats Smell? What Can Cats Taste?

Subscribe to the blog today so you don’t miss it!

*JD Warford, DVM, is the owner and operator of DC MetroVet. Check us out at

*Photos by Jen Sizer at

The Feline Upper Respiratory Infection: It snot an easy fix

7 May

Over the last few months, I have received multiple questions related to feline upper respiratory infections. Rather than address them separately, I decided to give you a nice summary here, so pay attention. It’s a complicated and frustrating problem for vets and people owned by cats alike. Here’s why.

What are the common symptoms of feline upper respiratory infections?
-discharge from eyes and nose
-oral and nasal ulcerations
-loss of appetite
-loss of energy

What organisms cause these infections?
– there are several, which is part of the reason they are so difficult to manage
– feline herpes virus (rhinotracheitis)
– only survives for 18 hours outside host
– many infected cats remain carriers for life
– carriers may intermittently shed later in life at times of stress/illness
– carriers are sources of infections for other cats
– since it is a virus, antibiotics are not effective
– some say approx 1/3 of all cats are carriers of feline herpes virus
– calici virus
– most cats do finally clear the virus after several months
– many do remain contagious for months even though the illness has improved
– some remain carriers for life
– the virus can remain active for up to 10 days outside the host cat
– only bleach, not normal laundering, will kill it
– since it is a virus, antibiotics are not effective
– these two viruses account for a majority of infections, close to 90%
– don’t worry- these viruses are only infectious to other cats

Other possible causes of feline upper respiratory infections include:
– mycoplasma
– chlamydophila (formerly known as chlamydia)
– bordetella
-these account for generally less than 10% of feline upper respiratory infections
-these can be responsive to antibiotics, such as doxycycline, however, doxycycline can not be safely used in young, growing animals (such as kittens), complicating the treatment even further

More crappy news:
– infections may be caused by multiple organisms, which can obviously complicate treatment/recovery
– to further complicate it, there is no simple test to determine which organism is causing the illness, and some cats are infected simultaneously with multiple organisms

OK, so how do these illnesses spread?
-airborne (sneezing, coughing)
-fomites (objects carrying the organism such as bedding, toys, grooming utensils, and your clothes and hands that have been contaminated)
-crowded conditions (such as shelters and breeders) increase the likelihood of outbreaks
-stress or illness may induce a carrier cat (herpes virus) to show signs or begin shedding again

So, why are these illnesses so common?
– they are highly contagious
– 90% are viral, so there is no direct treatment available except for time
– carrier cats with no symptoms of illness can shed the infectious organisms for months
(calicivirus) or years (herpesvirus)
– stress (changes in household including new people, pets, construction, or moving) or other
illnesses may cause carrier cats to begin intermittently shedding for weeks (herpes virus)
– some organisms (calicivirus, remember?) can last for days outside of the host on bedding, toys,
etc, and aren’t deactivated by non-bleach detergents

Why are they so hard to treat?
– weren’t you paying attention?
– 90% of them are caused by viruses so like the common cold or flu, there is no effective direct treatment other than nursing care and time
– there is no simple testing to determine what is causing the infection, so treatment has to be aimed at the most likely causes and the symptoms
– there is no easy way to determine if and when a cat has ceased shedding the organism and is no longer contagious
– generally the time of exposure to illness is 2-7 days, so in crowded situations, many cats can get sick very quickly
– active illness generally lasts 7-10 days regardless of treatment
– upper respiratory infections can result in secondary pneumonia, which can be life threatening

Well this sucks. How can I prevent an upper respiratory infection in my household?
– short answer, you can’t
– many cats become carriers (therefore infected and/or contagious) before they reach your house
– many cats that are carriers/contagious are not showing any symptoms of illness at the time of
– many cats that are carriers/contagious remain so for weeks, months, or even a lifetime, even in
the absence of obvious symptoms of illness
– there is no simple test to determine if your cat is infected, contagious, or a carrier of an
upper respiratory infection

Well that sucks too. So what can I do to prevent infection?
– short answer, again, you really can’t (have you been paying attention?)… but…
– vaccinate- herpes and calicivirus are part of the feline “distemper” vaccination and vaccinated cats are less likely to develop illness if exposed or may have less severe symptoms if they do become sick
– isolate new cats (not just obviously sick ones)- just remember, some cats are carriers for months or for life, and do not show obvious signs of illness, so this will not be 100% effective
(this is also a good idea in general- intestinal parasites are also very contagious, so until you have had an exam by a veterinarian and a stool check for parasites, you should never allow new cats to come in direct contact with other cats in the house, especially sharing litter boxes)
– wash all materials in bleach that have come into contact with a sick cat (not entirely practical or possible, considering your carpet, furniture, and hands are likely included in that)
– try to minimize stress and be aware stress or illness may cause a carrier cat to become sick again and/or begin shedding the infectious organism again, for weeks or months

Well crap. My cat has an upper respiratory infection… what should I do?
– If you have multiple cats, separate the sick cat as soon as you notice symptoms. Even though this will not likely prevent the spread of infection at that point, it may help minimize it.
– Make sure all other cats’ vaccinations are up to date.
– Have the sick cat examined by a veterinarian, especially if there is lethargy, loss of appetite, severe congestion or conjunctivitis, or coughing. While the underlying organism may not be directly treatable, many of the symptoms can be managed with medications such as anti-histamines, decongestants, eye medications, immune supplements, and appetite stimulants. Your vet may also be able to give you tips about home care (such as steamy shower therapy for congestion.) It is also smart to determine if there are signs of secondary pneumonia, which may require antibiotic treatment to prevent severe or even fatal infections. Kittens, due to their immature immune systems, are especially susceptible to severe complications due to upper respiratory infections.
– Never give any over the counter medications to your cat without a veterinarian’s recommendation. Many over the counter medications are toxic to cats. Also, cats and esp kittens require very small doses of the medications they can safely take.

So it sounds like there really isn’t any way to be positive my cat will never be exposed to an upper respiratory infection… is there any good news?
– Yes! Most cats with upper respiratory infections are able to successfully overcome the signs of illness and do not have any obvious long term health problems. But remember, some may remain carriers for months or even a lifetime. So, although respiratory infections are almost impossible to contain and prevent, in otherwise healthy cats, they are usually nothing more than annoying outbreaks (much like a common cold or flu in people) that do not impact the cat’s overall quality of life in the long run. What makes them different from the common cold and flu is the fact that many cats remain chronically infected carriers for months or years even after recovering from the signs of the infection.

I told you. It snot fun.

Welcome to our blog!

3 May

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